Sand and gravel on pavement can cause loss of control. Avoid it if clear pavement can be safely used. If it can’t be avoided, minimize maneuvering while crossing the area alertly.
Glass and other road debris can cause you to lose control and can puncture tires. Avoid the area by safely changing lane position, or dismount and walk the bike around the area.
Puddles can hide a pothole. Carefully maneuver around them.
Sewer grates can catch a wheel. Avoid riding across all grating, but especially ones with holes in-line with your wheel. Watch for these along curbs and low edges.
Cracks in the road’s surface can throw you off balance. Be alert to the angle that you cross over bumps and rough edges. Try to find the most consistent lane position, with less problem cracking, and maintain this lane position.
Dogs can be a road hazard as both an obstacle and a potential attacker. Speak sternly to the dog, and prepare for evasive action. If the dog is successful in attacking, dismount and use the bike as a shield. Commercial repellents are available for you to carry for such situations.